Baghdad battery dating
Further, there are many difficulties with the interpretation of these artifacts as galvanic cells: Some observe that the artifacts strongly resemble another type of object with a known purpose namely, storage vessels for sacred scrolls from nearby Seleucia on the Tigris.Those vessels do not have the outermost clay jar, but are otherwise almost identical.Whether they are ancient computers, massive underground armies, or just gruesome corpses, these are the 25 most intense archaeological discoveries in human history.
Any basic understanding of electrical theory of these cultures did not allow them to render more robust designs.
After the Second World War, Willard Gray demonstrated current production by a reconstruction of the inferred battery design when filled with grape juice. Jansen experimented with benzoquinone (some beetles produce quinones) and vinegar in a cell and got satisfactory performance.
However, even among those who believe the artifacts were electrical devices, electroplating as a use is not well regarded today.
The gilded objects which Knig thought might be electroplated are now believed to have been fire-gilded (with mercury). Arne Eggebrecht consumed "many" reproduction cells to achieve a plated layer just one micrometre thick. Eggebrecht used a more efficient, modern electrolyte; using only vinegar, the "battery" is very feeble.
An alternative, but still electrical explanation was offered by Paul Keyser.
These artifacts came to wider attention in 1938, when Wilhelm Knig, the German director of the National Museum of Iraq, found the objects in the museum's collections, and (in 1940, having returned to Berlin due to illness) published a paper speculating that they may have been galvanic cells, perhaps used for electroplating gold onto silver objects.