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10-Aug-2017 15:31

It has been one billion years since plants and animals separated, yet of the 103 amino acids in this protein, there is only one difference between a pea and a cow (Zihlman 2001)!

This is due to the enormous amount of functional constraint on this molecule as a result of its essential function.

Some genes have been shown to evolve at disparate rates across genes and lineages and over time(Ayala et al.1998).

A great deal of data exists that shows this variation.

One of the most widely used examples are the copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) proteins.

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If this rate is reliable, the gene could be used as a molecular clock.

When a stretch of DNA does indeed behave like a molecular clock, it becomes a powerful tool for estimating the dates of lineage-splitting events.

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